Variadic functions – Part 1: va_args and friends

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In the series:

  1. Variadic functions – Part 1: va_args and friends
  2. Variadic functions – Part 2: C++11 variadic templates
  3. Variadic functions – Part 3: techniques of variadic templates

From time to time there is a need to write a function, that accepts an unspecified number of arguments. In C++ we have multiple ways of handling this depending on the context, use case and available language features. But the oldest and still most commonly used mechanism is the va_arg.

You think nothing can surprise you? Let’s bet.

va_arg in a nutshell

Variadic function by definition takes a variable number of arguments. C and C++ provide a builtin way of expressing this in the argument list by using the ellipsis (...).

Here is a function, that accepts two doubles and an unknown number of other arguments:

void compute(double a, double b, int count...)
    // Some operations...

In the example we provide an additional information to the function – number of arguments that are hidden behind the trailing ellipsis. It looks like an optional hint to the function implementer, but in fact it is required by the C standard (C++ refers to C on this matter).

Valid usage of va_args in C++ requires that:

  • ellipsis must be last in the arguments list,
  • last named parameter must define the count of variadic arguments,
  • ellipsis can be preceded with an optional comma.


C++ added an optional comma before the ellipsis to be compatible with C, where comma is obligatory.

The standard library provides the <cstdarg> header with the following tools to work with the variadic arguments:

  • va_list – helper type, that represents the variadic arguments list,
  • va_start() – initializes the va_list object in the current function,
  • va_arg() – extracts the next variadic argument,
  • va_end() – destroys the va_list object.

The va_list type is implementation-defined and shouldn’t be accessed directly. Its only purpose is to be used by the va_* macros family. The exact definition is usually provided by a builtin in the compiler and depends on the CPU and ABI (Application Binary Interface), which defines the calling convention (how arguments are passed from caller to the callee).

For the curious

Here are two example implementations found in the wild:
– pointer to the stack (old Apple kernel implementation),
– custom structure (System V AMD64 ABI specification).

va_start() macro initializes the va_list object using the number of expected variadic arguments. It is required to be called before any access to the variable arguments.

The central role of the happy variadic family plays the va_arg() function macro. It is used to extract the argument of the given type from the current parameters list’s head. We can visualize this process as casting the varargs pointer to the demanded type and moving it later by the size of the type.

va_end() macro destroys the helper object and has to be called in the same function as the corresponding va_start() call. It also must be called before any redefinition of there va_list type.

Here is a complete example of a valid variadic function usage:

#include <cstdarg>

int sum(int count, ...)
    int sum = 0;
    va_list args;
    va_start(args, count);

    for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
        int num = va_arg(args, int);
        sum += num;

    return sum;

int main()
    return sum(4, 6, 7, 8, 9);

Feel free to play and inspect this example on different platforms and compiler using Compiler Explorer.

Default type promotion

There is one interesting process that happens behind the scenes when using variadic arguments. The C standard states, that all unnamed arguments that are part of the variadic list are subject to the default type promotion. It means, that all variadic arguments are converted in the following way:

  • std::nullptr_t is converted to void*,
  • float arguments are converted to double,
  • bool, char, short and unscoped enumerations are converted to int or wider integer types.

It is really important to remember, because it’s not obvious. For example: if you pass the char or bool, you still have to extract an int! Here is an example:

#include <cstdarg>
void func2(int count…)
    va_list ap; 
    va_start(ap, count);

    auto b = static_cast<bool>(va_arg(ap, int));

void func()
    func2(1, true);

Sources of the undefined behavior

Variadic arguments from <cstdarg> is a simple mechanism. However, it is easy to introduce some serious bugs to your program if you are not careful. Here is the list of rules to obey to avoid the UB while using va_args:

  1. Do not pass parameters count to va_args by reference.
  2. Always define variadic arguments count to be the last named parameter (right before the ellipsis).
  3. Do not use va_list before calling va_start() first.
  4. Do not use va_list after calling va_end().
  5. Do not call va_end() in a different function that corresponding va_start().
  6. Do not call va_start() on the previously initialized object without calling va_end() first.
  7. Do not call va_arg() more times than the actual number of arguments.
  8. Do not call va_arg() with the incorrect type.


It doesn’t matter that you checked the violated rule and it works. It is just luck.

Static analysis

Variadic arguments are operating directly on the stack arguments, so no wonder why this API has so many constraints. But fear not! Your favorite compiler is here to help. It turns out, that both GCC and Clang have the default -Wvarargs warning enabled. They can check if you are providing the number of hidden arguments in the arguments list, if this parameter is right before the ellipsis and if by any chance you are passing a reference to the va_start macro.

It is also checked by the popular static analyzers: clang-tidy and Parasoft C/C++ Static Analyzer.

Alternatives to va_arg

Presented va_arg mechanism from <cstdarg> is no the only way to implement the variadic functions. In specific use cases you can use other alternatives:

  • function overloads – handy in a situation, where there are not that many combinations of the arguments and they are handled in a different way,
  • function accepting a container of arguments (e.g. std::vector, std::array or std::initializer_list) – this approach can be used only if arguments share a common type. Of course, we can use the type erasure technique (std::any, std::variant), but it will add another layer to the solution making it harder to understand,
  • variadic templates – which will be discussed in the second part of this article.


Variadic functions with va_arg support have both pros and cons. They give you freedom and flexibility in handling particular tasks. But also they require a strict contract between the caller and the callee, which is hard to maintain. They are not type safe (only rely on the contract) and can lead to undefined behavior. There are multiple recommendations to avoid it (e.g. C++ Core Guidelines and SEI CERT C++ Coding Standard), which I agree with. However I you have no other option or you have to use an API that already takes the va_args – be careful and RTFM!

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In the series:

  1. Variadic functions – Part 1: va_args and friends
  2. Variadic functions – Part 2: C++11 variadic templates
  3. Variadic functions – Part 3: techniques of variadic templates